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Six New Studies Illuminate Causes and Comorbidities in Migraine

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Dr Christoph Diener surveys new data on the causes, treatment, and comorbidities of migraine.
Medscape Neurology
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4 hours ago
#4: "The investigators put a female patient into an MRI scan and evoked pain responses by stimulating the trigeminal nerve. They did this every day for 30 consecutive days, and the patient suffered three spontaneous migraine attacks."

I don't have institutional access anymore so can't check the full-text. But I dearly hope that amazing woman was handsomely compensated for her participation!
4 hours ago
No shit. I don't think they'd let us do that to our mice, and for good reason.
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The 50 Most Segregating School Borders In America : NPR Ed : NPR

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Gustav Dejert/Getty Images

The grass is greener ... if you're a student in Detroit, looking across your school district's boundary with the neighboring Grosse Pointe public schools.

Nearly half of Detroit's students live in poverty; that means a family of four lives on roughly $24,000 a year — or less.

In Grosse Pointe, a narrow stretch of real estate nestled between Detroit and Lake St. Clair, just 7 percent of students live at or below the poverty line.

To recap, that's 49 percent vs. 7 percent. Neighbors.

Which is why a new report from the nonprofit EdBuild ranks the Detroit-Grosse Pointe boundary as "the most segregating school district border in the country."

Week 1: Why America's Schools Have A Money Problem

The report, called "Fault Lines," doesn't stop there.

"What we did is built an algorithm that identified all 33,500 school district borders in the country ... and compared their school-aged child poverty rates," says Rebecca Sibilia, the founder and CEO of EdBuild.

From this comparison Sibilia's team compiled a list of the 50 most segregating school boundaries in the nation — in short, the district borders with the largest difference in child poverty rates from one side to the other. In this case, "segregating" is being used to talk specifically about class, not race, though the two often overlap, especially in America's large urban school systems.

Rounding out the top three on the Fault Lines list are the Birmingham City School District in Alabama and ... the Birmingham City School District in Alabama.

In fact, of Birmingham's 13 school district boundaries, six landed on EdBuild's list of the 50 most segregating. That's because the poverty rate of Birmingham's students is 49 percent, while the district is surrounded by several far smaller, far more affluent districts: Vestavia Hills (6 percent child poverty), Mountain Brook (7 percent), Trussville (10 percent), to name a few.

Birmingham's district lines weren't always a story of haves and have nots, at least not this glaring. Most of the affluent districts now bordering the city's schools were once part of the larger Jefferson County School District. But over the years, they have seceded, using their considerable property tax wealth to create new minidistricts.

Interestingly, Birmingham stands out not only because of its multiple appearances but because Alabama is the only Southern state on the list (unless you count Kentucky or Missouri). One reason for this, says Sibilia, is that in much of the South, county borders do double duty as school district borders, "and so there is less opportunity for intentional segregation."

In fact, Sibilia says, she and her team "were shocked. We honestly believed we were going to see a lot of this in the South and very little in the North."

Instead, the vast majority of states on EdBuild's list were Northern, with segregating school lines heavily concentrated in the Rust Belt, particularly Ohio. Dayton's schools have two borders on the list. Ditto Youngstown. Cleveland has four. As manufacturing jobs disappeared, so too did families that could afford to move, creating intense pockets of student poverty.

What can be done about it?

There are no easy fixes, owing in part to the U.S. Supreme Court.

In 1970, the NAACP sued the state of Michigan; its lawyers argued that Detroit's schools were still unofficially segregated more than 15 years after Brown v. Board of Education because of discriminatory housing policies meant to keep African-Americans out of the suburbs. The proposed remedy: a forced desegregation plan involving dozens of surrounding school districts.

But in one of its most controversial decisions, Milliken v. Bradley in 1974, the court ruled that these largely white, affluent suburban districts could not be forced to desegregate because their boundaries were not deliberately discriminatory. Or had not been proved so.

"The court said that the school district as a concept is basically untouchable," says Ben Justice, an education historian at Rutgers University's Graduate School of Education.

Justice calls the Milliken decision "ridiculous" because, he says, "to argue that where people live, particularly by the 1960s, was not the result of racist government policy was simply a lie. Public policy and private industry conspired to create neighborhoods where people could or could not live." And, Justice says, school district lines were (and remain) an extension of that discrimination.

Fast-forward more than 40 years after that ruling. One of the school borders at the heart of that case tops EdBuild's new list: the jagged curve that today separates Detroit's schools, where half of all students live in poverty, from those of Grosse Pointe, where poverty is blissfully uncommon.

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1 day ago
"In fact, Sibilia says, she and her team "were shocked. We honestly believed we were going to see a lot of this in the South and very little in the North.""
Scoffing Southerner adds: Will they never learn?!
2 days ago
Washington, DC
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Can Software Make You Less Racist?

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I don't think we computer geeks appreciate how profoundly the rise of the smartphone, and Facebook, has changed the Internet audience. It's something that really only happened in the last five years, as smartphones and data plans dropped radically in price and became accessible – and addictive – to huge segments of the population.

People may have regularly used computers in 2007, sure, but that is a very different thing than having your computer in your pocket, 24/7, with you every step of every day, integrated into your life. As Jerry Seinfeld noted in 2014:

But I know you got your phone. Everybody here's got their phone. There's not one person here who doesn't have it. You better have it … you gotta have it. Because there is no safety, there is no comfort, there is no security for you in this life any more … unless when you're walking down the street you can feel a hard rectangle in your pants.

It's an addiction that is new to millions – but eerily familiar to us.

The good news is that, at this moment, every human being is far more connected to their fellow humans than any human has ever been in the entirety of recorded history.

Spoiler alert: that's also the bad news.

Nextdoor is a Facebook-alike focused on specific neighborhoods. The idea is that you and everyone else on your block would join, and you can privately discuss local events, block parties, and generally hang out like neighbors do. It's a good idea, and my wife started using it a fair amount in the last few years. We feel more connected to our neighbors through the service. But one unfortunate thing you'll find out when using Nextdoor is that your neighbors are probably a little bit racist.

I don't use Nextdoor myself, but I remember Betsy specifically complaining about the casual racism she saw there, and I've also seen it mentioned several times on Twitter by people I follow. They're not the only ones. It became so epidemic that Nextdoor got a reputation for being a racial profiling hub. Which is obviously not good.

Social networking historically trends young, with the early adopters. Facebook launched as a site for college students. But as those networks grow, they inevitably age. They begin to include older people. And those older people will, statistically speaking, be more racist. I apologize if this sounds ageist, but let me ask you something: do you consider your parents a little racist? I will personally admit that one of my parents is definitely someone I would label a little bit racist. It's … not awesome.

The older the person, the more likely they are to have these "old fashioned" notions that the mere presence of differently-colored people on your block is inherently suspicious, and marriage should probably be defined as between a man and a woman.

In one meta-analysis by Jeffrey Lax and Justin Phillips of Columbia University, a majority of 18–29 year old Americans in 38 states support same sex marriage while in only 6 states do less than 45% of 18–29 year olds support same-sex marriage. At the same time not a single state shows support for same-sex marriage greater than 35% amongst those 64 and older

The idea that regressive social opinions correlate with age isn't an opinion; it's a statistical fact.

Support for same-sex marriage in the U.S.

18 - 29 years old    65%
30 - 49 years old    54%
50 - 64 years old    45%
65+ years old        39%

Are there progressive septuagenarians? Sure there are. But not many.

To me, failure to support same-sex marriage is as inconceivable as failing to support interracial marriage. Which was not that long ago, to the tune of the late 60s and early 70s. If you want some truly hair-raising reading, try Loving v. Virginia on for size. Because Virginia is for lovers. Just not those kind of lovers, 49 years ago. In the interests of full disclosure, I am 45 years old, and I graduated from the University of Virginia.

With Nextdoor, you're more connected with your neighbors than ever before. But through that connection you may also find out some regressive things about your neighbors that you'd never have discovered in years of the traditional daily routine of polite waves, hellos from the driveway, and casual sidewalk conversations.

To their immense credit, rather than accepting this status quo, Nextdoor did what any self-respecting computer geek would do: they changed their software. Now, when you attempt to post about a crime or suspicious activity …

… you get smart, just in time nudges to think less about race, and more about behavior.

The results were striking:

Nextdoor claims this new multi-step system has, so far, reduced instances of racial profiling by 75%. It’s also decreased considerably the number of notes about crime and safety. During testing, the number of crime and safety issue reports abandoned before being published rose by 50%. “It’s a fairly significant dropoff,” said Tolia, “but we believe that, for Nextdoor, quality is more important than quantity.”

I'm a huge fan of designing software to help nudge people, at exactly the right time, to be their better selves. And this is a textbook example of doing it right.

Would using Nextdoor and encountering these dialogs make my aforementioned parent a little bit less racist? Probably not. But I like to think they would stop for at least a moment and consider the importance of focusing on the behavior that is problematic, rather than the individual person. This is a philosophy I promoted on Stack Overflow, I continue to promote with Discourse, and I reinforce daily with our three kids. You never, ever judge someone by what they look like. Look at what they do instead.

If you were getting excited about the prospect of validating Betteridge's Law yet again, I'm sorry to disappoint you. I truly do believe software, properly designed software, can not only help us be more civil to each other, but can also help people – maybe even people you love – behave a bit less like racists online.

[advertisement] At Stack Overflow, we help developers learn, share, and grow. Whether you’re looking for your next dream job or looking to build out your team, we've got your back.
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1 day ago
1. Just checked ND, and my neighbors are excellent about racial things, but man, they're unloading some ugly ass furniture.

2. Any chance we can roll out a version of this software to the police? They seem to need extra help in this area.
1 day ago
They have a terrible reputation here for this kind of racist commentary. Maybe this will help…
Washington, DC
1 day ago
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2 public comments
17 hours ago
This is a very, VERY low bar to clear. Like...THE LOWEST.
Portland, OR
1 day ago
Nextdoor is still pretty racist, though. I see stuff like, "black person wearing ____ and _____ parked on my street and walked away," at least once a week. And my neighborhood is fairly diverse.
19 hours ago
I shit you not: just now the "community lead" in my Nextdoor neighborhood made a post about making police and firefighters a protected class for hate crimes. Figures this blue lives matter shit gets spewed from the same guy who deleted multiple posts of people saying they were uncomfortable with a pretty racist OPD press release a few months back.

#SurreyBC #RCMP responding to pregnant female trapped in car for 2hrs by 3 raccoons preventing her from getting to her kids in house

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responding to pregnant female trapped in car for 2hrs by 3 raccoons preventing her from getting to her kids in house

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4 days ago
I know she really had to pee, etc, but goddamn, I'd pay somebody to trap me from getting to my kids for a few hours.
5 days ago
Vancouver Island, Canada
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Hancock toddlers sexually abused, infected with STD while in DHS custody

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While the Hancock County Sheriff’s Office was occupied with a forgery complaint leveled against state child-services workers in 2015, Bay St. Louis attorney Edward Gibson met with a client whose two children had been sexually abused and infected with gonorrhea while in state custody.

The client, Alexandria Faye, said she received a text message June 11, 2014, from a Mississippi Department of Human Services worker urging her to come to a hospital in Gulfport.

Faye’s two children had been taken into DHS custody after Faye was arrested in February that year. Hancock County’s DHS office then placed the kids in the care of foster parent Erica Weary of Gulfport. The kids, ages 1 and 2 at the time, remained in Weary’s home about four months until DHS workers Harmony Raffeo and Deana Chase took them to a hospital.

This is Part 5 of ‘Fostering Secrets,’ a six-part investigative series into Mississippi’s child protection system.

> Read the full series here

“I was at home,” Faye said, recalling the day she learned of the sexual abuse. “I had just got off of work. Harmony Raffeo sent a text to my phone, and she said, ‘Alex, please call me. It’s an emergency.’”

Faye accompanied Raffeo and Chase at Garden Park Medical Center in Gulfport. One of her daughters had tested positive for gonorrhea.

“The next thing that popped into my mind,” she said, “is ‘How did this happen and is my other daughter OK?’”

The 1-year-old was not tested but was suffering from symptoms that prompted medical staff to treat both children for gonorrhea. The 2-year-old tested positive for the STD and had symptoms indicating she had been penetrated.

In addition to treatment at Garden Park, the children underwent exams and other treatment at Coastal Family Health in Gulfport and Children’s Hospital in New Orleans.

“I said, ‘How could you let this happen? You must have not been checking up on them,’” Faye said. “And (Raffeo) said she might have let time slip away from her.”

Raffeo had previously told Faye the foster home had only two people living there — a woman and an 8-year-old girl.

“I guess she told me that just to ease my mind,” Faye told the Sun Herald. “I did not find out who-all was actually in the home until the incident.”

When asked again, Raffeo changed her answer. It went from the foster mom and the 8-year-old girl to the foster mom, the 8-year-old girl, a 17-year-old son and a boyfriend who was coming in and out of the home, Faye said.

Faye said when she asked if anyone in the home had been tested for gonorrhea, Raffeo told her the foster family would be interviewed and urged her to stop worrying about the investigation.

Gulfport police also responded to the hospital. The police report confirms the foster mother’s son was in the home but made no mention of a boyfriend or 8-year-old daughter.

The report describes the case as a “sexual battery” of a child, yet the report’s narrative contains only one sentence: “DHS supervisor Deana Chase stated that on 11 June 2014 at about 1615 hrs she learned that (redacted), a 2 year old w/f under DHS care, was possible sexually abused by an unknown person at 14095 Gladys St.”

No follow-up interviews or other actions to investigate the crime are indicated on the report. The District Attorney’s Office did not learn of the sexual battery until it was published in the Sun Herald. The case has since been closed.

Access to the record is a sincere and troubling problem

Edward Gibson, Bay St. Louis attorney

Gulfport Police Chief Leonard Papania said they were unable to find a suspect.

“So that’s it?” Faye said. “They just quit? They’re not investigating at all? They just quit?”

The only way to contract gonorrhea is through sexual contact. It takes two to five days to develop symptoms after an infection, which is known as the incubation period.

Faye’s attorney, Edward Gibson, said the incubation period is the time it takes to develop symptoms after a person is infected.

“The child was in custody longer than the scientifically recognized incubation period,” he said. “In other words, we know it happened while the child was in custody.”

Gibson is representing Faye in a federal civil rights lawsuit filed against DHS, Raffeo, Weary, Hancock County DHS supervisor Tequila Hall and others connected to the case.

A ‘troubling problem’

Despite having represented Faye in federal court and in Hancock County Youth Court, Gibson has been denied access to Faye’s Youth Court and DHS records because of confidentiality rules.

“I don’t have access to those records right now, even after I have filed a federal civil rights lawsuit,” he said in a March interview, “but more importantly, even after I have made an appearance in that case.”

According to the lawsuit, Faye is claiming negligence on the part of DHS for the agency’s failure to screen the foster family and regularly inspect the foster home.

Much of Gibson’s case weighs heavily on the DHS and Youth Court records. For instance, DHS case-log notes may contain answers to when and how often the foster home was inspected.

“Access to the record is a sincere and troubling problem,” he said. “Ms. Faye’s case is now sealed, even to me as an attorney of record.”


The confidentiality rules also create frustrations for DHS and youth court officials — they are restricted from making public comments about specific cases.

“It’s just not working anymore,” Hancock County Youth Court Judge Elise Deano said. “And it’s not working because it’s being used to beat the system over the head as opposed to protecting the kids.”

Just as the confidentiality creates the potential for an official to misrepresent facts or conceal the truth in a youth court case, it creates the same potential for a parent to lie in court, Deano said.

“If everyone else knew the facts, they could form their own opinion,” she said.

Such is the case for many DHS workers, who have very difficult jobs, and have had to watch in silence as the agency’s reputation has been sullied.

Sheriff Adam pointed out almost any large organization will inevitably have a few bad-apple employees.

“They have good people there,” he said “We’re not saying everybody at the agency’s bad nor have we ever said that.”


Since early 2014, when the Sun Herald began investigating allegations surrounding the child-services system, there have been several changes.

Most notably, the DHS child-protection division is now a separate agency with a director who reports directly to the governor in accordance with new legislation passed in 2016. It has rebranded itself as Mississippi Child Protective Services and has begun to transition out from under the umbrella of DHS.

CPS Director David Chandler said he is open to the idea of removing the system’s blanket of secrecy and allowing youth court judges to decide on a case-by-case basis whether confidentiality is needed, as all other court systems do.

He also said he intends to make the agency more forthright and transparent than it has ever been.

“If some employee of our agency is committing a crime or there is evidence that he or she may be committing a crime, then I notify the local law enforcement in that area,” he said. “That’ll be my practice.”

All the close calls that aren’t so clear-cut, that people might have a problem with, that’s what they’re able to keep confidential

Jennifer Berry

Erica Weary, who fostered the two toddlers who were sexually abused, is no longer a licensed foster parent. CPS Special Investigations Director Tonya Rogillio said Weary’s foster home has been closed since December, the same month the Sun Herald first reported on the sexual abuse.

Hancock County’s foster-care rate has decreased but still remains the highest per-capita foster care rate in the state.

Hancock County has hired a public defender to represent indigent parents in its Youth Court. Chandler said he believes state leaders will soon follow suit to install court-appointed lawyers at youth courts statewide.

Judge Deano said media coverage of the foster-care crisis was part of the reason she was able to get more services.

“I think it always helps when you have attention because then people talk about it; people take ownership in it,” she said. “It has caused people to call me out of the blue and say, ‘Hey, we’d like to start offering AA classes. We’d like to start offering counseling.’”

Three civil rights lawsuits, including Marie Gill’s and Alexandria Faye’s, have been filed against DHS in federal court. All three are from Hancock County. DHS has since filed responses, denying any wrongdoing in the cases.

In its response to Gill’s case, DHS invoked its qualified immunity privilege. Qualified immunity is a state statute that exempts the agency from lawsuit claims based on an employee’s actions.

‘A system of no accountability’

The Coast’s three youth court judges each said most of the cases coming through their courts are those of child neglect rather than physical or sexual abuse.

Only 8 percent of substantiated reports nationwide involve physical injury to the child, according to a 2015 study by Dale Cecka, published in the Catholic University Law Review.

With that point in mind, Jennifer Berry made an argument in support of openness.

Would open Youth Courts in Mississippi help children or hurt them? 3:38

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“The majority of these cases are not that serious,” she said. “But (DHS is) keeping them confidential, they say, to protect the children.

“But in the really bad cases, where children are sexually abused, physically abused, those go to criminal court, and those aren’t kept confidential.”

Criminal court records and proceedings are open to the public. Therefore, when a case of child mistreatment comes under investigation by law enforcement, the public has access to the details of the incident via police and criminal-court records. Typically, only the names of the children are redacted.

“So what the youth court has right now is a system where they’re able to keep confidential all the close calls,” Berry said. “All the close calls that aren’t so clear-cut, that people might have a problem with, that’s what they’re able to keep confidential. There’s just no reason for that other than to protect the court and the system itself.”

Harrison County Youth Court Judge Margaret Alfonso made similar comments in a March interview.

“I have come to conclude that the confidentiality has created a system of no accountability,” she said. “And until we start a discussion of why is it and can we do better, it’s going to continue the way it is.”

Click here to read part 6 of Fostering Secrets.

Click here to read the entire series here.

About the Sun Herald’s investigation

Over the past 18 months, the Sun Herald has conducted exclusive interviews and filed public-records requests with several law enforcement agencies. The paper uncovered audio recordings, court filings and thousands of pages of documents related to how the state appears to have mishandled several child-protection cases.

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7 days ago
Just stumbled on this portion of a series.

“If some employee of our agency is committing a crime or there is evidence that he or she may be committing a crime, then I notify the local law enforcement in that area,” he said. “That’ll be my practice.”

that'll = that will = it isn't the practice now?! jfc
7 days ago
and jfc also at this whole damn thing which I do not have the spare emotional capacity to read at all past the headline right now
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Good Morning, Vietnam!!!

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The sisters of Alpha Delta Pi are here to terrify you.

UPDATE: The video has been taken down, thank goodness. If you want a taste of rush week, just look at the Pinterest world of recruitment.

Maddy*, recruitment vice-president, Hayley*, chapter president, and Jean-Marie*, former recruitment chair, have been waiting for us all summer and they’re so glad we’re finally here so they can try to get us to join their house club of tan white girls with long straightened hair at the University of Texas at Austin’s chapter of Alpha Delta Pi, boom boom, they wanna wear white and blue, boom boom, and wear that diamond too, boom boom, don’t you?

Wait hold on. Their T-shirts are clearly mint green, right? Also Maddy clearly forgot her belt? Is Jean-Marie’s hair curled at the ends while everyone else’s is straight? And why is Hayley cut off entirely from the video? I feel bad for her, but not as bad as I feel for the disembodied arms and fingers at the back.


ADPi was founded at a private liberal arts college called Wesleyan, no not that one, in Macon, Georgia, originally founded as “Georgia Female College,” and then later changed to “Wesleyan Female College.” Alpha Delta Pi was its first secret society. The sorority’s main philanthropic focus is the Ronald McDonald House Charities. Happy Rush Week!!

*I don’t know how to spell their names so I just guessed.

Good Morning, Vietnam!!! was originally published in The Hairpin on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.

Read the responses to this story on Medium.

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8 days ago
Quick Wesleyan facts:

-- Instead of "no not that one," we'd prefer if you'd refer to Wesleyan as "The First College in the World Chartered to Grant Degrees to Women" because it is (1836, motherfuckers, and still single-sex)

-- While ADPi and another sorority were founded at Wesleyan long long ago, sororities have been banned there since 1910 because they were/are terrible.

--There is a small plaque on campus about those foundings, and every year or two a carfull of ADPis would roll up to see "the motherland" and be terribly, terribly confused/disappointed. (And we would laugh terribly, terribly long and offer them an application)

-- Instead, we have an elaborate "sisterhood" setup that is not perfect but is WAY better than sororities (more inclusive, cheaper, and safer)

source: winning STUNT committee member 2000, 2001, AND 2002, and 2002 grad (#1! PKs #1!)
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